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红色预警 | 教你雅思打开雾霾话题(二)

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<article use="1"><section><section><section><section><p><span style="font-weight: bold; font-size: xx-large;">各种“雾”的区别</span></p></section></section><section></section></section></section></article><p><br></p><article use="1"><section><section><section></section><section></section></section><section><section><p><em><strong style="font-size: x-large;">fog</strong></em><em><strong></strong></em></p><p>雾,相对湿度(the relative humidity)一般在90%以上。</p></section></section></section></article><article use="1"><section><section><section></section><section></section></section><section><section><p><em><strong style="font-size: x-large;">mist</strong></em><em><strong></strong></em></p><p>薄雾,多指晨间的白雾。</p></section></section></section></article><article use="1"><section><section><section></section><section></section></section><section><section><p><em><strong style="font-size: x-large;">haze</strong></em><em><strong></strong></em></p><p>霾,由细小的悬浮颗粒(fine suspended particles)引起的,常与thick、dense等形容词连用;此外,haze还有薄雾、迷糊的意思。</p></section></section></section></article><article use="1"><section><section><section></section><section></section></section><section><section><p><em><strong style="font-size: x-large;">smog</strong></em><em><strong></strong></em></p><p>烟雾,由smoke和fog构成,是烟尘等引起的空气污染。可用dense、choking﹙令人窒息的﹚、noxious﹙有毒的﹚等形容词修饰。</p></section></section></section></article><p><br></p><article use="1"><section><section><section><br></section><section><p><span style="font-size: x-large;"><em><strong>Popular Science</strong></em>大众科学</span></p></section></section></section></article><article use="1"><fieldset><section><section></section><section><br></section></section><section><section><p>相对湿度  <em>relative humidity</em><em></em></p><p>能见度  <em>visibility</em></p><p>污浊的空气   <em>foul air</em></p><p>连续多日烟雾  <em>consecutive smoggy days</em></p></section></section><section><section></section><section></section></section></fieldset></article><p><br></p><article use="1"><section><section><section><p><span style="font-size: x-large;"><em><strong>Measurement</strong></em> 计量方式</span></p></section></section></section></article><article use="1"><fieldset><section><section></section><section><br></section></section><section><section><p>大气质量指数 <em>AQI(Air Quality Index)</em><em></em></p><p>大气污染指数 <em>API(Air Pollution Index)</em><em></em></p><p>空气质量检测 <em>air quality monitoring</em><em></em></p><p>实时发布的PM2.5数据 <em>real-time PM2.5 data</em></p></section></section></fieldset></article><article use="1"><section><section><section><br></section><section><p><em><strong><br></strong></em></p><p><span style="font-size: x-large;"><em><strong>Particulate matter</strong></em> 悬浮微粒</span></p></section></section></section></article><article use="1"><fieldset><section><section></section><section><br></section></section><section><section><p>可吸入颗粒物 <em>PM 10</em><em></em></p><p>可入肺颗粒物 <em>PM 2.5</em><em></em></p><p>悬浮颗粒物 <em>Airborne particulate matter</em><em></em></p><p>有毒物质 <em>toxic substance</em><em></em></p><p>有害空气污染物 <em>hazardous airborne pollutant</em></p></section></section><section><section></section><section></section></section></fieldset></article><p><br></p><article use="1"><section><section><section><p><span style="font-size: x-large;"><em><strong>Prevention</strong></em> 防护</span></p></section></section></section></article><article use="1"><fieldset><section><section></section><section><br></section></section><section><section><p>防尘口罩 <em>anti-dust mask</em><em></em></p><p>空气净化器 <em>air purifier</em><em></em></p><p>橙色预警 <em>orange alert</em></p></section></section><section><section></section><section></section></section></fieldset></article><p><br></p><article use="1"><section><section><section><p><span style="font-size: x-large;"><em><strong>Related words</strong></em> 相关词汇</span></p></section></section></section></article><article use="1"><fieldset><section><section></section><section><br></section></section><section><section><p>防尘口罩 <em>anti-dust mask</em><em></em></p><p>空气净化器 <em>air purifier</em><em></em></p><p>橙色预警 <em>orange alert</em></p></section></section><section><section></section><section></section></section></fieldset></article><p><br></p><p>空气质量的改善,光靠抱怨是没有用的,还需要大家共同努力,再一起来看一些具体做法的环保词汇吧!</p><article use="1"><img alt='红色预警 | 教你雅思打开雾霾话题(二)' src="https://mmbiz.qpic.cn/mmbiz_gif/v4vz52CcB11CiaDO7tf4O56jR3u5nwC9OO0FKIyeb8fmD0ggA9g1UOia95ZQMpqLsVLicKsQnapNrow2jSick5iacBw/640?"></article><article use="1"><section><article use="1"><section><section><section><p><span style="font-size: x-large;">细颗粒物</span></p><p><span style="font-size: x-large;">PM2.5</span></p></section></section></section></article><p>是指“可入肺颗粒物”,现在多被称为“细颗粒物”。PM的英文全称为<em><strong>particulate matter(微粒物、悬浮微粒)</strong></em>,PM2.5就是指大气中直径小于或等于2.5微米的颗粒物,可直接进入人体的<em><strong>alveoli of the lungs(肺泡)</strong></em>,也称为“可入肺颗粒物”,它的直径还不到人头发丝粗细的1/20。PM2.5主要来自机动车尾气尘、燃油尘、硫酸盐、餐饮油烟尘、建筑水泥尘、煤烟尘和硝酸盐等。</p><p><br></p><article use="1"><section><section><section><p><span style="font-size: x-large;">低碳生活方式 </span></p><p><span style="font-size: x-large;">low-carbon lifestyle</span></p></section></section></section></article><p><strong><em>低碳生活方式(low-carbon lifestyle)</em></strong>代表着更健康、更自然、更安全的生活,同时也是一种低成本、低代价的生活方式。低碳不仅是企业行为,也是一项符合时代潮流的生活方式。<em><strong>低碳(low carbon)</strong></em>,意指较低(更低)的温室气体(二氧化碳为主)排放,就是<em><strong>低能量(low energy),低消耗(low consumption )</strong></em>的生活方式。<br></p><p><br></p><article use="1"><section><section><section><p><span style="font-size: x-large;">低碳经济 </span></p><p><span style="font-size: x-large;">low-carbon economy</span></p></section></section></section></article><p>“低碳经济”是指在<em><strong>可持续发展理念(sustainable development concept)</strong></em>指导下,通过<strong><em>技术创新(technological innovation)</em></strong>、<em><strong>制度创新(system innovation)</strong></em>、<em><strong>产业转型(industrial transformation)</strong></em>、<em><strong>新能源开发(new energy development )</strong></em>等多种手段,尽可能地减少煤炭石油等<em><strong>高碳能源消耗(high carbon energy consumption)</strong></em>,减少<strong><em>温室气体排放(greenhouse gas emissions)</em></strong>,达到经济社会发展与生态环境保护双赢的一种经济发展形态。</p><article use="1"><section><section><section><p><br></p><p><span style="font-size: x-large;">可再生资源回收 </span></p><p><span style="font-size: x-large;">renewable resource recycling</span></p></section></section></section></article><p>如今,为了提倡环保,街道两边的垃圾桶都可以进行<em><strong>垃圾分类(garbage sorting)</strong></em>,主要分为<strong><em>可回收垃圾(recoverable garbage)</em></strong>和<em><strong>不可回收垃圾(unrecoverable garbage)</strong></em>,而我们家庭中常见的则是<em><strong>餐厨垃圾(kitchen waste)</strong></em>。而无法回收的垃圾也并非一无是处,有些发电厂就利用<strong><em>垃圾焚烧(waste incineration)</em></strong>来发电。</p><p><br></p><article use="1"><section><section><section><p><span style="font-size: x-large;">垃圾按量收费 </span></p><p><span style="font-size: x-large;">pay as you throw</span></p></section></section></section></article><p>缩写为<em><strong>PAYT</strong></em>,每个<em><strong>家庭﹙household﹚</strong></em>都要为<strong><em>不可回收垃圾﹙non-recyclable rubbish﹚</em></strong>的处理支付费用,而费用的多少则根据垃圾的<strong><em>数量﹙quantity﹚</em></strong>和<em><strong>重量﹙weight﹚</strong></em>来计算。<em><strong>可回收垃圾﹙recyclable waste﹚</strong></em>的处理是免费的,遵循的是“<em><strong>多循环,少交费﹙the more you recycle, the less you pay﹚”</strong></em>原则。</p><article use="1"><section><section><section><p><br></p><p><span style="font-size: x-large;">无烟环境 </span></p><p><span style="font-size: x-large;">smoke-free environment</span></p></section></section></section></article><p>我们在有些公共场所可以看到<em><strong>NO SMOKING</strong></em>的牌子,这类场所就属于<em><strong>smoke-free area(无烟区)</strong></em>。北京市实施最严禁烟令以来,全部室内公共场所都属于无烟环境。</p><p><br></p><article use="1"><section><section><section><p><span style="font-size: x-large;">碳税</span></p><p><span style="font-size: x-large;">carbon tax</span></p></section></section></section></article><p>是基于市场的主要减排方案之一,根据<em><strong>化石燃料(fossil fuel)</strong></em>燃烧后排放碳量的多少,针对化石燃料的生产、分配或使用来征收税费。而相比之下,使用<em><strong>风力(wind)</strong></em>,<em><strong>日光(sunlight)</strong></em>,<strong><em>水电(hydropower)</em></strong>等<em><strong>非燃烧能源(non-combustion energy sources)</strong></em>则更加环保。<em><strong>征收碳税(carbon tax)</strong></em>的目的在于控制<strong><em>气候变化(climate change)</em></strong>和<em><strong>全球变暖(global warming)</strong></em>。</p><article use="1"><section><section><section><p><br></p><p><span style="font-size: x-large;">碳足迹</span></p><p><span style="font-size: x-large;">carbon footprint</span></p></section></section></section></article><p><em><strong>指直接或间接支持人类活动所产生的温室气体总量(the total amount of greenhouse gases produced to directly and indirectly support human activities)</strong></em>,通常用产生的二氧化碳吨数来表示。比如,你开车的时候,发动机在燃烧汽油的同时会释放出一定量的二氧化碳,这个量由耗油量和行驶里程决定。</p><article use="1"><section><section><section><p><br></p><p><span style="font-size: x-large;">碳浓度 </span></p><p><span style="font-size: x-large;">carbon intensity</span></p></section></section></section></article><p>指消耗每吨能源所产生的<em><strong>碳排放量(carbon emission)</strong></em>。我们采取措施减少<em><strong>温室气体排放(greenhouse gas emission)</strong></em>就可以降低大气中的<em><strong>碳浓度(carbon intensity)</strong></em>。</p><article use="1"><section><section><section><p><br></p><p><span style="font-size: x-large;">光污染 </span></p><p><span style="font-size: x-large;">light pollution</span></p></section></section></section></article><p>“光污染”指的是一种<em><strong>物理性污染(physical pollution)</strong></em>,但标准很难界定。常见的<em><strong>光污染源(light pollution sources)</strong></em>包括<em><strong>霓虹灯(neon light)</strong></em>、<em><strong>装饰灯(decorative light )</strong></em>、<em><strong>广告牌(advertisement boards)</strong></em>、<em><strong>大厦的玻璃幕墙(glass walls of skyscrapers)</strong></em>等等。<br></p><p><br></p></section></article>
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